Das olympische Boxen ist dabei sein Gesicht zu verändern. In den nächsten Jahren soll der Kopfschutz verschwinden. Es sollen Helden kämpfen, keine Amateure. von Andreas Rüttenauer
Mit der Ahnung ist das so eine Sache, deshalb hier eine kleine Auswahl an...
...Studien zu Auswirkungen des Boxsports auf das menschliche Gehirn:
CSF-biomarkers in Olympic boxing: diagnosis and effects of repetitive head trauma.
Neselius S, Brisby H, Theodorsson A, Blennow K, Zetterberg H, Marcusson J.
BACKGROUND: Sports-related head trauma is common but still there is no established laboratory test used in the diagnostics of minimal or mild traumatic brain injuries. Further the effects of recurrent head trauma on brain injury markers are unknown. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between Olympic (amateur) boxing and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) brain injury biomarkers.
METHODS: The study was designed as a prospective cohort study. Thirty Olympic boxers with a minimum of 45 bouts and 25 non-boxing matched controls were included in the study. CSF samples were collected by lumbar puncture 1-6 days after a bout and after a rest period for at least 14 days. The controls were tested once. Biomarkers for acute and chronic brain injury were analysed.
RESULTS: NFL (mean ± SD, 532±553 vs 135±51 ng/L p = 0.001), GFAP (496±238 vs 247±147 ng/L p<0.001), T-tau (58±26 vs 49±21 ng/L p<0.025) and S-100B (0.76±0.29 vs 0.60±0.23 ng/L p = 0.03) concentrations were significantly increased after boxing compared to controls. NFL (402±434 ng/L p = 0.004) and GFAP (369±113 ng/L p = 0.001) concentrations remained elevated after the rest period.
CONCLUSION: Increased CSF levels of T-tau, NFL, GFAP, and S-100B in >80% of the boxers demonstrate that both the acute and the cumulative effect of head trauma in Olympic boxing may induce CSF biomarker changes that suggest minor central nervous injuries. The lack of normalization of NFL and GFAP after the rest period in a subgroup of boxers may indicate ongoing degeneration. The recurrent head trauma in boxing may be associated with increased risk of chronic traumatic brain injury.
Long-term consequences of repetitive brain trauma: chronic traumatic encephalopathy.
Stern RA, Riley DO, Daneshvar DH, Nowinski CJ, Cantu RC, McKee AC.
Abstract: Chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) has been linked to participation in contact sports such as boxing and American football. CTE results in a progressive decline of memory and cognition, as well as depression, suicidal behavior, poor impulse control, aggressiveness, parkinsonism, and, eventually, dementia. In some individuals, it is associated with motor neuron disease, referred to as chronic traumatic encephalomyelopathy, which appears clinically similar to amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Results of neuropathologic research has shown that CTE may be more common in former contact sports athletes than previously believed. It is believed that repetitive brain trauma, with or possibly without symptomatic concussion, is responsible for neurodegenerative changes highlighted by accumulations of hyperphosphorylated tau and TDP-43 proteins. Given the millions of youth, high school, collegiate, and professional athletes participating in contact sports that involve repetitive brain trauma, as well as military personnel exposed to repeated brain trauma from blast and other injuries in the military, CTE represents an important public health issue. Focused and intensive study of the risk factors and in vivo diagnosis of CTE will potentially allow for methods to prevent and treat these diseases. Research also will provide policy makers with the scientific knowledge to make appropriate guidelines regarding the prevention and treatment of brain trauma in all levels of athletic involvement as well as the military theater.
Direct hits to the head during amateur boxing is associated with a rise in serum biomarkers for brain injury.
Graham MR, Myers T, Evans P, Davies B, Cooper SM, Bhattacharya K, Grace FM, Baker JS.
Abstract: Boxing exposes participants to the physiological response to high intensity exercise and also to direct body and brain trauma. Amateur boxing is increasing and females have also been included in the Olympics. The aim of this study is to assess the stress response and possible brain injury incurred during a match by measuring serum biomarkers associated with stress and cellular brain injury before and after combat. Sixteen male amateur boxers were studied retrospectively. The study population was divided into two groups: (a) a group that received predominantly punches to the head (PTH) and (b) a group that received predominantly punches to the body (PTB). Blood samples were taken before and five minutes after each contest. They were analysed for S-100B, neuron-specific enolase (NSE), creatine kinase (CK) and cortisol. The PTH group received direct contacts to the head (not blocked, parried or avoided) and to the body (n=8, age: 17.6 ± 5.3, years; height: 1.68 ± 0.13, meters; mass: 65.4 ± 20.3, kg). The PTB group received punches to the body including blocked and parried punches, but received no direct punches to the head, (n=8, mean ± SD, age: 19.1 ± 3.2 years; height: 1.70 ± 0.75, meters; mass: 68.5 ± 15 kg). Significant increases (P<0.05) were observed between pre- and post-combat serum concentrations in serum concentrations in PTH of S-100B (0.35 ± 0.61 vs. 0.54 ± 0.73, μg.L-1) NSE (19.7 ± 14 vs.31.1 ± 26.6, ng.ml-1) and cortisol (373 ± 202 vs. 756 ± 93, nmol.L-1). Significant increases (P<0.05) of creatine kinase were recorded in both groups. This study demonstrates significant elevations in neurochemical biomarkers in boxers who received direct blows to the head. However, further work is required to quantify this volumetric brain damage and long term clinical sequelae.
...Studien zur Wirksamkeit des Kopfschutzes im Boxsport:
Boxing and mixed martial arts: preliminary traumatic neuromechanical injury risk analyses from laboratory impact dosage data.
Bartsch AJ, Benzel EC, Miele VJ, Morr DR, Prakash V.
OBJECT: In spite of ample literature pointing to rotational and combined impact dosage being key contributors to head and neck injury, boxing and mixed martial arts (MMA) padding is still designed to primarily reduce cranium linear acceleration. The objects of this study were to quantify preliminary linear and rotational head impact dosage for selected boxing and MMA padding in response to hook punches; compute theoretical skull, brain, and neck injury risk metrics; and statistically compare the protective effect of various glove and head padding conditions.
METHODS: An instrumented Hybrid III 50th percentile anthropomorphic test device (ATD) was struck in 54 pendulum impacts replicating hook punches at low (27-29 J) and high (54-58 J) energy. Five padding combinations were examined: unpadded (control), MMA glove-unpadded head, boxing glove-unpadded head, unpadded pendulum-boxing headgear, and boxing glove-boxing headgear. A total of 17 injury risk parameters were measured or calculated.
RESULTS: All padding conditions reduced linear impact dosage. Other parameters significantly decreased, significantly increased, or were unaffected depending on padding condition. Of real-world conditions (MMA glove-bare head, boxing glove-bare head, and boxing glove-headgear), the boxing glove-headgear condition showed the most meaningful reduction in most of the parameters. In equivalent impacts, the MMA glove-bare head condition induced higher rotational dosage than the boxing glove-bare head condition. Finite element analysis indicated a risk of brain strain injury in spite of significant reduction of linear impact dosage.
CONCLUSIONS: In the replicated hook punch impacts, all padding conditions reduced linear but not rotational impact dosage. Head and neck dosage theoretically accumulates fastest in MMA and boxing bouts without use of protective headgear. The boxing glove-headgear condition provided the best overall reduction in impact dosage. More work is needed to develop improved protective padding to minimize linear and rotational impact dosage and develop next-generation standards for head and neck injury risk.
Boxing-acute complications and late sequelae: from concussion to dementia.
Förstl H, Haass C, Hemmer B, Meyer B, Halle M.
BACKGROUND: Boxing has received increased public attention and acceptance in recent years. However, this development has not been accompanied by a critical discussion of the early and late health complications.
METHODS: We selectively review recent studies on the acute, subacute, and chronic neuropsychiatric consequences of boxing.
RESULTS: Cerebral concussions ("knock-outs") are the most relevant acute consequence of boxing. The number of reported cases of death in the ring seems to have mildly decreased. Subacute neuropsychological deficits appear to last longer than subjective symptoms. The associated molecular changes demonstrate neuronal and glial injury correlated with the number and severity of blows to the head (altered total tau, beta-amyloid, neurofilament light protein, glial fibrillary acidic protein, and neuron-specific enolase). The risk of a punch-drunk syndrome (boxer's dementia, dementia pugilistica) as a late effect of chronic traumatic brain injury is associated with the duration of a boxer's career and with his earlier stamina. There are similarities (e.g. increased risk with ApoE4-polymorphism, beta-amyloid pathology) and differences (more tau pathology in boxers) compared with Alzheimer's disease.
CONCLUSION: Protective gear has led to a remarkable reduction of risks in amateur boxing. Similar measures can also be used in professional boxing, but may decrease the thrill, which does appeal to many supporters.
Viel Spaß bei der Lektüre.
den Kopfschutz sollte man beibehalten, aber die Trikots sollten verschwinden, d.h. nackter Oberkörper für alle Amateure. Das Trikot bringt keinen Schutz. Die Hose reicht für Team-Identifikation und Startnummer
So ein Unsinn. Ohne Kopfschutz ist das Boxen gesünder. Der Kopfschutz führt nachweislich zu schwerwiegenderen Verletzungen, weil er viel mehr Trefferfläche bietet und man demnach auch deutlich mehr Treffer landet. Punktueller Druck (ohne Kopfschutz) ist auch besser, als wenn sich der Druck über den Kopfschutz auf den ganzen Schädel verteilt. Die Folge sind mehr Hirnschäden. Alles erwiesen. Kopfschutz ist nur Propaganda. Man gaukelt den Leuten vor, dass das gesünder ist - ist aber nicht wahr. Wers nicht glaubt: Frag google.
Die Idee, dass Boxen ohne Kopfschutz stattfindet finde ich sehr gut. In 4 Jahren werde ich endlich auch so alt sein um zu Olympia zu fahren. Der Kopfschutz schützt auch nicht so viel wie immer alle Leute denken und ich komm ohne ihn besser klar. Früher in der DDR hat man auch ohne Kopfschutz geboxt, auch ein Henry Maske der Abitur hat. Und dann lese ich hier Kommentare dass Boxen ohne Kopfschutz "verdummen" soll. Dielendieb ich bitte dich: Wenn man keine Ahnung hat....
Welch logik ^^
Verschwindet beim fechten auch der gesichtsschutz? dem ansatz kann ich nicht folge leisten, als ehemaliger boxer kenn ich die probleme und verletzungen die ohne kopfschutz auftreten könnten! bei turnieren wird ja nicht wie beim profi boxer alle paar monate gekämpft, sondern teilweise 2 oder gar 3 Kämpfe an eine tag (olympia ist das nicht so krass, aber selbst 2 oder 3 kämpfe pro woche sind drin). Und der skandal wird kommen sobald der gewinner eine cut verletzung davon trug und gesperrt wird - dann darf der verlierer weiter ;)
Ohne Kopfschutz bekommt der Box"sport" keine neuen Helden, sondern nur noch dümmere Teilnehmer. Ist schon wem aufgefallen, dass bei den Olympischen Spielen keine einzige Denksportart vertreten ist?
LE MONDE diplomatique ist die größte Monatszeitung für internationale Politik. Sie erscheint weltweit in 61 Ausgaben – und liegt am 2. Freitag im Monat der tageszeitung bei.